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Publication date: 01.06.2021
DOI: 10.51871/2588-0500_2021_05_02_11
UDC 615.825


T.G. Artemenko1, E.V. Artemenko1, E.V. Arzhakova2
FSBEI of HE “Churapcha State Institute of Physical Culture and Sports”, Churapcha, Sakha Republic, Russia
2Republican Center of Adaptive Physical Culture and Sports, Yakutsk, Sakha Republic, Russia

Key words: social adaptation, adaptive physical culture, people with disabilities, people with hearing impairment, motive, volitional self-regulation.

Annotation. The article deals with problems of social adaptation of people with disabilities through adaptive physical culture. The purpose of this work is to theoretically substantiate and practically test the influence of adaptive physical culture and sports on the social adaptation of people with hearing impairment. According to the results of the study, the authors come to the conclusion that adaptive physical culture helps people with hearing impairment to solve many problems: it allows you to eliminate or weaken the nervous and emotional overload; distracts from the tedious and negative consequences of everyday life; cultivates a sense of collectivism, curiosity, patriotism, thirst to overcome obstacles and other valuable moral and volitional qualities.

Introduction. Currently, an issue of providing conditions of professional adaptation for people with disabilities is of great significance. In society, people with disabilities are one of the most vulnerable social groups in need of support. They experience a high degree of cultural, social and mental alienation, do not have a possibility to fully communicate, work and learn.

Adaptive motor activity, rehabilitation, physical education and other known types of adaptive physical culture solve tasks of maximum distraction from your diseases and problems during the process of activity, which includes communication, active recreation and other forms of a normal human life [3].

For deaf people, sport always had the most significant, system-forming value. It is an area, in which deaf people do not feel themselves oppressed in comparison with healthy people, because sport for the deaf is a stimulus for struggle, self-affirmation and a way for social rehabilitation [1].

The purpose of this study is to theoretically substantiate and practically test the impact of adaptive physical culture and sports on the social adaptation of people with hearing impairment.

Methods and organization. The study was conducted on the base of the State Budgetary Institution of the Sakha Republic (Yakutiya) “Republican Center of Adaptive Physical Culture and Sports” (further referred to as the Center).

Since May 21, 2014 in accordance with the Order of the Government of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) dated December 30, 2013 № 1488 the Republican Center of Adaptive Physical Culture and Sports carries out its activities on the base of the “Samorodok” swimming pool located in Yakutsk.

The Center’s purpose is the development of physical culture and sports in the Sakha Republic (Yakutiya) aimed at the improvement of quality of physical rehabilitation and social adaptation of people with disabilities.

In total, 689 people with disabilities are learning in the Center. For people with hearing impairments such types of sports as track-and-field, checkers, freestyle wrestling, swimming, rifle and pistol shooting, futsal, volleyball and table tennis are applied. 152 individuals of the learning and training group with hearing impairments are engaged in these types of sports (Table 1).

Table 1

Distribution of students with hearing impairment according to sports types

Sports types

Number of athletes


6 to 17 years

Groups number at the stage of sports training

Total number of groups

Total number od students


















Freestyle wrestling







Rifle and pistol shooting














Table tennis




























According to the unified timetable, every year the Center holds more than 20 physical culture and health-improving events for the deaf. In 2019, 29 events were held, in which 746 athletes with hearing impairment participated.

The comparative analysis of held sports events in 2014-2019 showed that in 2014 a number of events in a year was 5, in 2019 the number was 5,8 times higher – 29 events were held (Table 2).

Table 2

Dynamics of sports events in 2014-2019


Annual indicators





















Currently, students of the Center with hearing impairment successfully perform in competitions in Russia, Europe and the whole world; in 2019 they won 33 medals.

Fig. 1. Number of athletes included into national teams of Russia of Deaflympic sports in 2019-2020.

As we can see on fig. 1, 27 athletes from the Sakha Republic (Yakutiya) were included into national teams of Russia of Deaflympic sports (freestyle wrestling – 9 people, Greco-Roman wrestling – 4 people, track-and-field – 2 people, rifle and pistol shooting – 2 people, checkers – 4 people, judo – 1 person, sambo – 2 people, arm-wrestling – 3 people).

Adaptive physical culture and adaptive sports are a way of merging people with disabilities into society, which establishes a connection with the outside world and contributes to its restoration. The swift development of adaptive physical culture and sports in the Sakha Republic (Yakutiya) has a positive effect on social adaptation of people with disabilities in society.

The most important factor in social adaptation of people with disabilities is motivation and volitional self-regulation. As far as is known, adaptive physical culture and sports training creates the needed motivation stimulus and activates volitional qualities of athletes, develops self-improvement in them [5].

27 people participated in the study. In order to solve the set task, the first stage was a questionnaire on the identification of motivation of athletes with hearing impairment to classes of adaptive physical culture and sports.

In order to establish the significance of motives, which lead people with hearing impairment to engage in adaptive physical culture and sports, participants were asked to fill the scale of significance on a 10-point scale (1 point – minimum, 10 points – maximum). Main motives were also identified: 1. Communication, friendly contact. 2. Self-affirmation. 3. Achieving success. 4. Harmonic physical and mental development. 5. Improvement of the state of health. 6. Desire to show their abilities. 7. Material values of any reward. 8. Nothing to do at home.

Results of every motive were formed according to next categories:

- 9-10 points – “extremely important”;     

- 7-8 points – “very important”;

- 5-6 points – “quite important”;                  

- 3-4 points – “not very important”;

- 1-2 points – “absolutely not important”.

At the second stage, a test developed by A.V. Zver’kov and E.V. Ejdman was conducted for the same group in order to identify volitional self-regulation [2].

The development of volitional self-regulation is related to such qualities as assertiveness and self-control. Degree of volitional self-regulation is established in comparison with the mean value of every indicator. If an obtained value is higher than the half of the maximum possible amount, it shows a high degree of the development of self-control, assertiveness and general self-regulation.

The test includes 30 questions. Participants had to read it carefully and decide whether it was true or false in relation to them.

Results and discussion. Results of the questionnaire showed that participant considered the №1 indicator “Communication, friendly contact” as the “extremely important” motive. Thus, for people with hearing impairment a motivation for engaging in adaptive physical culture and sports is that they want social interaction. It gives them an opportunity to establish numerous friendly contacts, to spend their time in an interesting and pleasant way. Engaging in adaptive physical culture, participating in various competitions promotes communication, increases
self-esteem, improves mental state, gives confidence and also helps to live in a more active environment.

Motive № 2 and motive № 5, “Self-affirmation” and “Improvement of the state of health” were included into the “very important” category. It indicates the fact that it is important for people with hearing impairment to be self-aware, to achieve the set results in sports, to show their worth in communication and interaction with other people, to feel respected in the eyes of surrounding people. At the same time, they strive to improve their health.

Motives № 3, № 4, № 6 and № 7, “Achieving success”, “Harmonic physical and mental development”, “Desire to show their abilities”, “Material values of any reward” were included in the “quite important” category. During sports training, athletes strive for harmonic physical and mental development. They connect their success to their own efforts and abilities. It indicates the fact that obtaining experience, sense of excitement, struggle and winning are motivational actions for people with hearing impairment. No motive was included in the “not very important” category. Only one motive was included in the “absolutely not important” category, which is “nothing to do at home”. It indicates that participants want to engage in adaptive physical culture and sports to pass their free time productively.

Fig. 2. Mean value of results of the formation of motivation to engage in adaptive physical culture and sports in people with hearing impairment

As we can see on fig. 3, high indicators in the scale of “self-control” are identified for 10 participants (37%) out of 27. Individuals, who are emotionally stable and are well versed in various situations, are getting the highest point.

Fig. 3. Indicator of self-control in participants

Their internal calmness, confidence in themselves lower the fear before the unknown, increases the readiness to perceive the new, unexpected and, as a rule, is combined with freedom of opinion, a tendency for innovation and radicalism. However, the desire for constant self-control, excessive conscious limitation of spontaneity could lead to the increase in internal stress, the prevalence of persistent anxiety and fatigue. Low level of self-control was registered in one participant only (4%), which means spontaneity and impulsivity combined with resentment and preference for traditional views, which protect the individual from intense emotions and internal conflicts, contributes to an indifferent mood background. The average indicator was registered is 16 participants (59%).

The index of “assertiveness” (Fig. 4) characterizes a strength of an individual's intentions, their desire to complete the work they started. The high indicator was registered in 7 participants (27%); these are active, efficient people, who are actively striving to achieve their goals. They are mobilized by obstacles on the way to the goal, but also distracted by alternatives and temptations; their main value is the work that has been started. Such individuals have a tendency to respect social norms, trying to completely subordinate their behavior to them. Low indicator was registered in 3 participants (11%). According to the given scale, low values indicate an increased lability, uncertainty, impulsivity, which can lead to inconsistency and even deviation in behavior.

Fig. 4. Indicator of assertiveness in participants

Decrease of the level of activity and performance in such individuals, as a rule, is compensated by the increased sensitivity, flexibility, creativity and desire to free explanation of social norms. Mean value of this indicator is 17 (62%).  

High rating in the general scale of volitional self-regulation (Fig. 5) was registered in 9 participants; it is typical for people, who are emotionally mature, active and independent.  They are defined by calmness, self-confidence, their stability of intentions, realistic views and developed sense of personal duty. As a rule, they reflect personal motives well that are systematically aware of the intentions that have arisen, contribute to the distribution of efforts and control their actions, and have a profound social-positive orientation. In extreme cases, they could increase their internal stress, related to the desire to control every special feature of their behavior and anxiety caused by the smallest spontaneity.  Low rating is registered in 5 participants, which characterizes sensitivity, emotional instability, vulnerability and insecurity. Their reflectivity is low and the general background of activity is usually decreases. Such individuals are characterized by impulsivity and instability of their own intentions. It could be related both to immaturity and to their obvious nature, not supported ability to think and control themselves. The mean value of this indicator is 13 (48%).


Fig. 5. Indicator of self-regulation in participants

Based on results of this test, it is safe to conclude that volitional self-regulation among participants, who are engaged in adaptive physical culture and sports, in on the mean level.

Conclusion. According to results of the questionnaire, it could be concluded that socialization is particularly profound in the system of sports competitions for people with hearing impairment, which could be considered as the form of their social activity, during which such social values as winning, prestige, spectacle and empathy exist.

Sports for people with hearing impairment is a special world of relationships and experience, which captivates, focuses on new objects, switches intellectual activity, creates relaxation, changes in emotions and mood. It gives a new color to behavior, character and lifestyle, which allows to the individual with hearing impairment to increase self-esteem, to feel like a useful citizen of their society, i.e., to socialize in it [5].

Results of the volitional self-regulation test show that interviewed participants most of all want to communicate, spend their time in an interesting and pleasant way and active physical culture classes, participation in sports competitions recover emotional balance, eliminate the feeling of isolation.  Self-realization, self-affirmation, desire to achieve success in sports activity returns the sense of confidence and respect to themselves, gives an opportunity to return to normal life.

Adaptive sports classes are an important and an integral part of life of students of the Republican Center of Adaptive Physical Culture and Sports, help them to adapt in modern society, have a positive effect on the state of an organism, develop creative potential, contribute to the development of physical qualities, give an opportunity for self-realization.


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Information about the authors: Artemenko Taras Grigor’evich – Candidate of Sciences on Physical Education and Sports, Associate Professor of the Department of Natural Sciences of the FSBEI of HE “Churapcha State Institute of Physical Culture and Sports”, Churapcha; Artemenko Elena Viktorovna – Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Humanities the FSBEI of HE “Churapcha State Institute of Physical Culture and Sports”, Churapcha; e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; Arzhakova Evgeniya Vladimirovna – Coordinator of adaptive physical culture of the Department of Monitoring and Accounting of Physical Rehabilitation and Psychological Support of the FBI of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) “Republican Center of Adaptive Physical Culture and Sports”, Yakutsk.